Displaced Communities

BALTIC GERMANS (150,000
displaced by Hitler & Stalin; 95%+)

GERMANS OF YUGOSLAVIA
(over 200,000 expelled, imprisoned, displaced, emigrated; 98.5% total)

VOLGA GERMANS (over 400,000 expelled by Soviets to Kazakhstan)

DUTCH GERMANS (3,691 expelled,
15% of German population)

GERMANS OF ALSACE-LORRAINE
(100-200,000 expelled after WWI)

GERMANS OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA
(over 3,000,000 expelled
and displaced; 95% total)

GERMANS OF HUNGARY
(over 100,000 expelled, over
300,000 displaced; 88% of total)

GERMANS OF ROMANIA
(over 700,000 or 91.5% displaced by Hitler, USSR, & emigration)

US Internment of German-Americans, Japanese, & Italians
(10,906+ interned & blacklisted) NEW!

GERMANS OF POLAND, PRUSSIA
(over 5,000,000 expelled and displaced, nearly 100%) COMING SOON

GERMANS OF RUSSIA/UKRAINE
(nearly 1,000,000 to Germany and Kazakhstan) COMING SOON




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Expellee scholarship on the occupations of Czechoslovakia and the Sudetenland, 1918-1945

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suggested readings, RESOURCES, ARCHIVES, & organisations


Click here to suggest a relevant website, book, or organisation, or add your own

Note: we **do not support** the views, ideology, or public behaviour of any of these organisations; we are NOT a lobby

WARNING: some groups listed under regional sections are biased and potentially nationalistic; however, the recommended books and organisations are selected for being dispassionate and scholarly as possible

______________________________________________________________

General Expellee Organisations, Lobby Groups, and Links
Recommended Academic Resources and Archives
Groups from other expelled minorities (Poles, Finns, Hungarians, Gypsies, Armenians, Tatars, etc.)
Recommended books, films, and sources
Sudeten/Czechoslovak German Expellee Groups and Records
Prussian/Silesian/Polish German Expellee Groups and Records
Germans descended from Russia, Ukraine, the Caucasus, or Central Asia

Baltic German Expellee Groups and Records
Banat/Yugoslav/Danube Swabian/Hungarian German Expellee Groups and Records
Volga German/Russian German Expellee Groups and Records
Transylvania Saxon/Romanian German Expellee Groups and Records
Internment of Germans, Italians, Japanese, & Polynesians in USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, etc.
______________________________________________________________

 

General Expellee Organisations, Lobby Groups, and Links

International Network of Genocide Scholars - click here.

International Association of Genocide Scholars - click here.

European Court of Human Rights - click here.

Stiftung Flucht-Vertreibung-Versoehnung - the research group working with the German government on the first official museum recognised by the government in (tense) cooperation with Poland.

Zentrum gegen Vertreibungen (Centre Against Expulsions, auf Deutsch and in English)

European Union of Exiled and Expelled Peoples - a research group documenting comparative ethnic cleansing and displacement across Europe

Unrecognised Peoples and Nations Organisation - a civil and cultural rights organisation representing groups as diverse as Afrikaaners, Tupi tribes of Brazil, and Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh.

European Union of Exiled and Expelled Peoples - a research group documenting comparative ethnic cleansing and displacement across Europe.

Vertriebene-Frauen.de- focusing on expelled Germans from a gendered perspective, quite a unique source

Bund der Vertriebenen (auf Deutsch)

Haus des deutschen Ostens (House of the German East), a state-supported archive in Munich - click here.

Verein für Deutsche Kulturbeziehungen im Ausland (Association for German Cultural Relations Abroad)

Prussian Trust/Preußische Treuhand (auf Deutsch and in English)

Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile - click here.

Die-ostgebiete.de (a reseller of books and products from eastern German history)

Preußischer-Mediensdienst (a German expellee history books reseller)

German World Alliance

Minorities at Risk -- compares threatened linguistic and cultural groups across the world

The Forgotten Genocide (for sale on DVD), a groundbreaking academic conference in February of 2010 attended by hundreds of scholars and survivors, including the Institute for Research of Expelled Germans



Recommended Academic Resources, Records, and Archives

Leidensweg der Deutschen im kommunistischen Jugoslawien 1944-1948 - a four-volume set that is by far the best work on family names, villages, and total demographic changes in Yugoslavia and the Banat.

Stanford's Hoover Archives - significant collections of original documents and reports on the expulsions, especially the Sudeten Germans - click here to search.

Archives of Californian universities - UCLA, Berkeley, and Stanford recommended - click here to search.

Haus der Donauschwaben Archiv - click here.

Totenbuch der Donauschwaben - records of family names and towns depopulated in Yugoslavia - click here.

Sudetendeutsches Archiv - official archive in Munich of the Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft - click here.

Sudetendeutsches genealogisches Archiv - click here.

State Historical Archive of Volga Germans, in Engels, former capital of the Volga German Autonomous Region before it was abolished. Email: archive@engels.san.ru.

Journal of Genocide Research, a magazine from the International Network of Genocide Scholars (click here).

Einwanderungszentralstelle Archive, Washington D.C. (for microfilms and records of more than 400,000 citizenship applications in Germany after the expulsions) - see here

Czech Secret Police Archive- Databáze @ SVAZKY.CZ - enter individual names for records (click here).

International Tracing Service - an official German government database to track down displaced families of World War II, including Germans, Jews, and other affected peoples

Romanian documents archive- Consiliul Naţional Pentru Studierea Arhivelor Securităţii (C.N.S.A.S./National Council for Studying Archives of the [Romanian] Securitate) - click here. Scholars can petition them for records.

Polish documents archive - The Institute of National Remembrance- click here.

Czech documents archive - The Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes - click here.

Slovak documents archive - Nation's Memory Institute- click here.

Hungarian documents archive - Historical Archives of the Hungarian State Security - click here.

Verband der deutschen sozial-kulturellen Gesellschaften in Polen (Organization of German Sociocultural Societies in Poland) - click here.

German government documents archive for East German STASI records - click here.

The Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile - click here.

 

 

Other expelled minorities (Poles, Finns, Gypsies, Hungarians, Tatars, etc.)

Carpathian Reflections - Hungarian and Slovak deportees during the population exchange - click here.

Šutaj, Štefan (2005). Nútené presídlenie Maďarov zo Slovenska do Čiech [Deportation of population of Hungarian nationality out of Slovakia to Czechia after the World War II] (in Slovak). Prešov: Universum.

Janics, Kalman. Czechoslovak Policy and the Hungarian Minority. Social Science Monographs, 1982.

Terror-Haza - the group and museum documenting the atrocities carried out by both the pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party in Hungary and the potential atrocities under the communist regime - also covers the removal of Hungarians from Slovakia - click here.

Hungarian Ambiance - a bit biased and nationalistic, butinteresting news on contemporary ethnic tensions in Slovakia against Hungarians - click here.

Window into the Barents - group researching the peoples of the Far North, including Karelian Finns who were deported by Stalin - click here.

Peoples of the Red Book - documenting the history and displacement of Russia's minorities, including Karelian Finns, Siberians, Kalmyks, and Caucasian peoples - click here.

Genealogical Society of Finland - including research on displaced Finnic tribes, Veps, Karelians, etc. - click here.

Finnish Karelian League - a bit biased and politicized; working for Karelian minority interests in Russia - click here.

World Directory on Minorities - including research on Kalmyk Buddhist deportees in Russia - click here.

Russia's Periphery - with attention to displaced minorities like Chechens, Ingush, Tatars, etc. - click here.

Koryo Saram - Russia and Kazakhstan's huge deported Korean minority - click here.

Koryo Saram Culture - survival of Korean tradition among DPs in Kazakhstan - click here.

European ROMA Rights Center - for Gypsy (Romani) cultural interests, focusing on displacement - click here.

United Nations Regional Working Group on the Roma - addressing discrimination and displacement - click here.

International Committee for Crimea - for Tatar rights and deportee interests - click here.

Crimean Tatar Initiative - click here.

United Human Rights Council on Armenian Genocide - click here.

Armenian Genocide.org - click here.

Genocide of Pontic Greeks by the Ottoman Turks - click here.

 

 

Recommended books, films, and sources

NEWS! See our latest publication on ethnic cleansing against minorities in Europe,
MEMORIA DEL OLVIDO
(Buenos Aires: Grupo del Escritores, 2014), now on tour in Argentina

Leidensweg der Deutschen im kommunistischen Jugoslawien 1944-1948 - a four-volume set that is by far the best work on family names, villages, and total demographic changes in Yugoslavia and the Banat.

Douglas, R.M. Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans After the Second World War. Yale University Press, 2012.

Grulich, Rudolf. "Ethnische Säuberung" und Vertreibung als Mittel der Politik im 20. Jahrhundert. 4. Aufl. München: Internationales Institut für Nationalitätenrecht und Regionalismus, 2002.

Ther, Philipp, Kramer, Mark, and Ana Siljak. Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Rieber, Alfred and Noskova, A.F., et al. Forced Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 1939-1950. Portland, OR: F. Cass, 2000.

Fischer, Henry. From Toleration to Expulsion: The Families of Ecsény Somogy County, Hungary 1784-1948. AuthorHouse, 2015.

Lowe, Keith. Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II. Macmillan, 2012.

Reinisch, Jessica, Gatrell, Peter and Frank, Matthew. The Disentanglement of Populations: Migration, Expulsion and Displacement in Post-War Europe, 1944-9. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Melville, Ralph et al. Zwangsmigrationen im Mittleren und östlichen Europa: Völkerrecht, Konzeptionen, Praxis (1938-1950). Mainz: Von Zabern, 2007.

Frank, Matthew. Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Bessel, Richard and Lüdtke, Alf, et al. Removing Peoples: Forced Removal in the Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. 

Ahonen, Pertti et al. People on the Move: Forced Population Movements in Europe in the Second World War and its Aftermath. English ed. Oxford: Berg, 2008.

Gaczol, Andrew and Gaczol, Otto. One Life - Three Countries: The Story of a 'New Australian' . Book discusses daily life for Jews, Germans, and Poles near Auschwitz and follows a family's flight from the Red Army from Poland to Czechoslovakia and to occupied Germany. See a preview of it on our Institute. CLICK HERE or here to buy "One Life - Three Countries".

Pavlatos, Art. The Ghost of Henry Wieler. eBook, 2014. -- the Russian Revolution from the perspective of a Volga German. See http://henrywieler.com

Schulze, Mathias. German Diasporic Experiences: Identity, Migration, and Loss. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008.

Maeder, Pascal. Forging a New Heimat: Expellees in Post-War West Germany and Canada. Göttingen: V&R Unipress, 2011. - (read an abstract here, with excellent rare statistics of German expellee integration, proportions, etc.)

Melcher, Ruth. Borne on the Danube: A Danube Swabian Story. Minneapolis, MN: Barky, 1995.

Burghardt, Klara. Das Häuschen und das Mäuschen. Nationale Lehrbuchverlag/Budapest, 2011. -a children's book written for German schools and lectures in Hungary

KlaraBurghardt.com - a German minourity author and schoolteacher in Hungary writing to promote the German language and acknowledge the enduring presence of Hungary's Germans

Cornelia, Herlacher. "Nikolaus Berwanger – Leben und Schaffen eines Rumäniendeutschen." University of Vienna, 2008. See here: http://othes.univie.ac.at/1017/1/2008-08-20_0100683.pdf

Mirtes, Hans. "70 Jahre Münchner Abkommen 1938 und das Schicksal der Sudetendeutsche." Heimatkreis Mies-Pilsen, Mai 2008).

Sellwood, A.V. The Damned Don't Drown: The Sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff. Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Wieler, Henry P. The Quiet in the Land. Bloomington, IN: Trafford Publishing, 2006. - original research on the Volga Germans, particularly from a Christian perspective.

Women of Valor - a scholarly publication on early female resistance to Nazis and the war, including Jews and Gentiles - click here.

Niven, Bill. Die "Wilhelm Gustloff:" Geschichte und Erinnerung eines Untergangs. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 2011.

Bacque, James. Crimes and Mercies: The Fate of German Civilians under Allied Occupation, 1944-1950. Vancouver, Canada: Talonbooks, 2007. -- NOTE that his statistics have come under question, particularly what "deaths" derived from disease, Allied negligence, or "murder."

The documentary film based on James Bacque's Crime and Mercies. See a YouTube trailer here.

Demshuka, Andrew. "Citizens in Name Only: The National Status of German Expellees, 1945-53." University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2006. ~ an excellent analysis of the overall effects of the expulsions on German society and the difficulty of integration.

Publications of Alfred de Zayas, a prominent human rights scholar considering the German expulsions genocide

De Zayas, Alfred. 2004. “The Expulsion: a crime against humanity.” http://www.meaus.com/expulsion-by-czechs-1945.htm

De Zayas, Alfred. Nemesis at Potsdam: the Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans: Background, Execution, Consequences. London: Taylor & Francis, 1979.

Grass, Günter. Im Krebsgang (The Crabwalk, or In Retrogression). ~ a ground-breaking work discussing the expulsion of Germans as a taboo topic of German and general historical memory. Also included is a polemical discussion of the Soviets' sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff, in which over 9,000 civilians and several thousand children were killed during escape.

Tannehill, Evelyne. Abandoned and Forgotten: An Orphan Girl's Tale of Survival During World War II.

Walter, Elizabeth. Barefoot in the Rubble. (written by a survivor)

Blanke, Richard. Orphans of Versailles: the Germans in Western Poland, 1918-1939. Louisville, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1993. ~ excellently meticulous analysis of the story of a forgotten minourity in Poland, as well as the process of their independent gravitation towards National Socialism prior to Germany's invasion

Püschel, Rudolf. Anfang und Ende einer deutsch-böhmischen Heimat. Ready-For-Print Publications. (written by a survivor)

Püschel, Rudolf. Expulsion from Czechoslovakia 1945/46. Ready-For-Print Publications. (written by a survivor)

Prokle, Herbert. Genocide of the ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia, 1944-1948. Donauschwäbische Kulturstiftung, 2003.

Brown, MacAlister. "The Diplomacy of Bitterness: Genesis of the Potsdam Decision to Expel Germans from Czechoslovakia." The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Sep., 1958): 607-626.

Piotrowski, Tadeusz. Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Press, 2007. ~ an excellent analysis of the inter-ethnic brutality and collaboration with invaders that equally occurred among Germans, Poles, Ukrainians, and Jews alike in the occupation.

Ziemer, Gerhard. Deutscher Exodus: Vertreibung und Eingliederung von 15 Millionen Ostdeutschen. Stuttgart: Seewald Verlag, 1973.

Lumans, Valdis. Himmler's Auxiliaries: the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933-1945. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Janjetović, Zoran. Between Hitler and Tito: The Disappearance of the Vojvodina Germans. S.N., 2005.

Wildmann, Georg. Verbrechen an den Deutschen in Jugoslawien 1944-1948: die Stationen eines Völkermords. München: Donauschwäbisches Archiv/Arbeitskreis Dokumentation, 1998.

Owen, Luisa Lang. Casualty of War: A Childhood Remembered. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2003.   

Wolff, Stefan. German Minorities in Europe: Ethnic Identity and Cultural Belonging. New York: Berghahn Books, 2002.

Pohl, Otto. Ethnic Cleansings in the USSR 1937-1949. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

Pittman, Avril. From Ostpolitik to Reunification: West German-Soviet Political Relations Since 1974. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Giesinger, Adam. From Catherine to Khrushchev: the story of Russia's Germans. Ann Arbor, MI:
University of Michigan, 1974.

Sheehy, Ann. The Crimean Tatars, Volga Germans and Meskhetians: Soviet Treatment of some National Minorities. London: Minority Rights Group, 1973.

Schechtman, Joseph B. European Population Transfers, 1939-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971

Wixman, Ronald. Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook. M.E. Sharpe, 1984.

Ahonen, Pertti. 2004. After the Expulsion: West Germany and Eastern Europe 1945-1990. New York, NY: Oxford Univ Press.

Blacksell, Mark, and Karl Martin Born. “Private Property Restitution: The Geographical Consequences of Official Government Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.” The Geographic Journal, Vol. 168, No. 2 (2002): 178-190.

Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History. Hill and Wang, 2001.

Naimark, Norman A. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in XX Century Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Naimark, Norman. Stalin's Genocides. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Grau, Karl Friedrich. Silesian Inferno: War Crimes of the Red Army on its March into Silesia in 1945. Valley Forge, PA: Landpost Press, 1992.

Marrus, Michael Robert. The Unwanted: European Refugees from the First World War through the Cold War.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2002.

"The expulsion of the 'German' communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War." Published for the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 2004.

Ondřej Matějka's Lost Sudetenland / Zmizelé Sudety.

Glassheim, Eagle. "National Mythologies and Ethnic Cleansing: The Expulsion of Czechoslovak Germans in 1945." Central European History, Vol. 33, No. 4 (2000): 463-486.

Eberhardt, Piotr and Owsinski, Jan. Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in 20th century Central-Eastern Europe. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2003.

Marrus, Michael Robert. The Unwanted: European Refugees from the First World War through the Cold War.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2002.

"The expulsion of the 'German' communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War." Published for the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 2004.

Haug, Werner and Courbage, Youssef. The Demographic Characteristics of National Minorities in Certain European States. Council of Europe, 1998.

Müller, Herta. The Hunger Angel (Atemschaukel). Metropolitan Books, 2012.

Müller, Herta. Nadirs. University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

 

WARNING: some groups listed under regional sections below are biased and potentially nationalistic

 

Sudeten/Czechoslovak German Expellee Groups and Records

Karpatendeutsche.de (Carpathian German Association)

Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft (Sudeten German Community in Germany)

Kulturverband tschechoslowakischer Bürger deutscher Nationalität (Cultural Association for Czech[oslovak] Citizens of German Nationality)- one of the only legal German groups in the socialist period - click here.

Mirtes, Hans. "70 Jahre Münchner Abkommen 1938 und das Schicksal der Sudetendeutsche." Heimatkreis Mies-Pilsen, Mai 2008).

Antikomplex - a Czech organisation bringing awareness to the Sudeten Germans

Sudetendeutsches Büro Prag (Sudeten German Bureau in Prague) - click here.

Slovak documents archive - Nation's Memory Institute- click here.

Czech documents archive - The Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes - click here.

Sudetendeutsche Jugend (Sudeten German Youth) - click here.

Museum of Carpathian German Culture (in Slovak and German) - click here.

Deutscher Böhmerwaldbund - click here.

Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft in Bayern (Sudeten German Community in Bavaria) - click here.

Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft in Österreich (Sudeten German Community in Austria) - click here.

Rudolf-Püschel.com, a survivor, writer, and researcher expelled from Czechoslovakia - click here.

 

 

Prussian/Silesian/Polish German Expellee Groups and Records

Polish documents archive - The Institute of National Remembrance- click here.

Prussian Trust - a lobby organisation for all German expellees, but from Poland in particular - click here.

Prussian Reconstructions - history, culture, ethnology - click here.

Black Sea German Research (including Poland and Ukraine) - click here.

Der deutsche Osten - regional research in Poland (WARNING: biased and nationalistic, but useful resources)

Deutsche Schutzgebiete - regional research and useful links - click here.

 

 

Baltic German Expellee Groups and Records

Sellwood, A.V. The Damned Don't Drown: The Sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff. Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Niven, Bill. Die "Wilhelm Gustloff:" Geschichte und Erinnerung eines Untergangs. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 2011.

Deutsche-Baltische Gesellschaft (the German Baltic Society)- click here.

Association of the Baltic Noble Corporations- click here.

Deutschbaltischer Jugend- und Studentenring (Baltic German Youth and Student Group)- click here.

Deutschbaltische Kulturstiftung - click here.

Deutschbaltische Landsmannschaft in Bayern (Baltic German Community in Bavaria) - click here.

 

 

Banat/Yugoslav/Danube Swabian/Hungarian German Expellee Groups and Records

Leidensweg der Deutschen im kommunistischen Jugoslawien 1944-1948 - a four-volume set that is by far the best work on family names, villages, and total demographic changes in Yugoslavia and the Banat.

Paulus, Susanne, Pesic, Vesna and Cvejic, Marko. O podunavskim Shvabama/Ueber die Donauschwaben/About the Danube Swabians. Mandragora Films and "Kikinda" Deutscher Verein, 2014.

Cvejic, Marko. "The Silent One." DVD, Mandragora Films, 2011. Order here: http://www.mandragorafilm.com/#/en/naruci

Cvejic, Marko. " Danube Swabians." DVD, Mandragora Films, 2011. Order here: http://www.mandragorafilm.com/#/en/naruci

Mandragora Films, a Serbian-led initiative to document the Danube Swabian lost legacy -- click here.

Burghardt, Klara. Das Häuschen und das Mäuschen. Nationale Lehrbuchverlag/Budapest, 2011. -a children's book written for German schools and lectures in Hungary

Melcher, Ruth. Borne on the Danube: A Danube Swabian Story. Minneapolis, MN: Barky, 1995.

Landesverband der Donauschwaben, USA (Association of the Danube Swabians in USA, English and German)- click here.

Gesellschaft für Serbisch-Deutsche Zusammenarbeit (Society for Serbian-German Cooperation) - click here.

Landsmannschaft der Banater Schwaben (Community of Banat Swabians in Bavaria) - click here.

Hungarian documents archive - Historical Archives of the Hungarian State Security - click here.

Kroatisch-Österreichische Gesellschaft/ Hrvatsko-Austrijsko Društvo - click here.

Deutscher Verein ,,Kikinda" in Croatia - click here.

Video Documentary: "Goodbye our Homeland!" (in Hungarian with English subtitles) - click here.

Heimatsortgemeinschaft Tscheb (Hometown Community of Tscheb, for Danube Swabians in general) - click here.

Danube Cultural Society (English) - click here.

Donauschwaben Villages Helping Hands Homepage - remembering our Donauschwaben ancestors - click here.

Austrian Culture Forum in Croatia (Austrijski Kulturni Forum) - click here.

Heimatbuch Molidorf, a collection of memoirs about Molin(dorf) in Serbia and its labour camp - click here.

Das Portal der Ungarndeutschen (the Portal to the Hungary Germans) - click here. Huge database of information.

Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Ungarn (Community of the Germans from Hungary) - click here.

Landesselbstverwaltung der Ungarndeutschen (Organisation for Self-Government of Hungary Germans) - click here.

Vereinigung Ungarndeutscher Akademiker (Union of Hungary German Academics) - click here.

Ungarndeutsches Sozial- und Kulturwerk (Hungary German Social and Culture Works) - click here.

Ungarndeutsche Bibliothek (Hungary German Library) - click here.

Donauschwaben.hu - an online magazine for Danube Swabians (in Hungarian and German) - click here.

United Donauschwaben [Danube Swabians] of Milwaukee - click here.

Molidorf.com - click here. Information about the Banat town of Molidorf, including maps and sources.

Danube-swabians.org- click here. Many sources and organised information on the Danube Swabians.

Banat-books.com- click here. A collection of books and sources.

Hrastovac- click here. Devoted to the history and displacement in the town of Hrastovac/Eichendorf.

 

 

Germans of Russia, Ukraine, the Caucasus, or Central Asia

International Verband der deutschen Kultur (Russia) - click here.

Foederale Nationale Kulturautonomie der Russlanddeutschen - click here.

Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (for Germans in Kazakhstan) - click here.

Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutscher Minderheiten (Russia) - click here.

 

 

Volga German/Russian/Kazakhstani German Expellee Groups and Records

State Historical Archive of Volga Germans, in Engels, former capital of the Volga German Autonomous Region before it was abolished. Email: archive@engels.san.ru.

Wieler, Henry P. The Quiet in the Land. Bloomington, IN: Trafford Publishing, 2006. - original research on the Volga Germans, particularly from a Christian perspective

The Center for Volga German Studies at Concordia University - click here.

Volga Germans at webbitt.com - click here.

Germans from Russia Heritage Collection - click here.

Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (for Germans in Kazakhstan) - click here.

American Historical Society of Germans from Russia - click here.

Russian Germans International - a Facebook group based in Kansas representing Volga Germans altogether

Deutsch-Kasachstanische Assoziation der Unternehmer, the leading representative of Germans expelled to Kazakhstan.

wolgadeutsche.ru

volgagerman.net

volgagermans.net

Volgaland, Country of the Volga Germans - an organisation promoting political autonomy or greater cultural rights for the Volga German minority in Russia and Kazakhstan

 

 

Transylvania Saxon/Romanian German Expellee Groups and Records

The Romanian Institute for Research on National Minorities - click here.

Cornelia, Herlacher. "Nikolaus Berwanger – Leben und Schaffen eines Rumäniendeutschen." University of Vienna, 2008. See here: http://othes.univie.ac.at/1017/1/2008-08-20_0100683.pdf

The Memorial of the Victims of Communism and of the Resistance - click here.

The Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile - click here.

Consiliul Naţional Pentru Studierea Arhivelor Securităţii (C.N.S.A.S./National Council for Studying Archives of the [Romanian] Securitate) - click here. Scholars can petition them for records.

Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile - click here.

Verband der Siebenbürger Sachsen (official Assocation of Transylvania Saxons, in Saxony, Germany) - click here.

Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România) - click here.

Siebenbürger Sachsen in Baden-Württemberg (a representative of Saxon emigrants to Germany) - click here.

Evangelical (Lutheran) Academy in Romania for Saxons (Academia Evanghelica Transilvania) - click here.

Siebenbürger-Sächsische Stiftung (Transylvania Saxon Foundation) - click here.

'Sibi-Web', Transylvania Saxons on the Internet (auf Deutsch) - click here.

Siebenbürger-Jugend (Transylvania [Saxon] Youth) - click here.

Siebenbürger Landler (Landler.com, devoted to the Landler Transylvanians) - click here.

Landsmannschaft der Siebenbürger Sachsen in Deutschland (representative in Germany) - click here.

Transylvania Saxons in Köln/Cologne (representing Romania's Germans via the Rheinland) - click here.

Landsmannschaft der Banater Schwaben (Community of Banat Swabians in Bavaria) - click here.

Landsmannschaft der Sathmarer Schwaben (Community of Satu Mare Swabians) - click here.

 

 

Internment of Germans, Italians, Japanese, & Polynesians in USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand

(Click here to read our article comparing the internment of German-, Japanese-, & Italian-Americans)

Wohltmann, Michael. "A FUTURE UNLIVED" A history of the internment of German Enemy Aliens on Torrens Island and the marginalization of Germans in South Australia during 1914-1924.

Migration Heritage Centre. "The Enemy at Home: German Internees in World War I Australia." http://www.migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibition/enemyathome/torrens-island-internment-camp/

Monteath, Peter. Interned: Torrens Island 1914-1915. Wakefield Press, 2014.

Briefly analyzes wartime internment and investigations. Tamke, Jürgen. The Germans in Australia. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Comparative analysis of Aboriginal, German, and Japanese internment. "Internment." Queensland WWII Historic Places. www.ww2places.qld.gov.au/homefront/internment/

Helmi, Nadine and Fischer, Gerard.The Enemy at Home : German Internees in World War I Australia. UNSW Press, 2011.

Bevege, Margaret. Behind Barbed Wire : Internment in Australia during World War II. University of Queensland Press, 1993).

Fischer, Gerhard. Enemy Aliens: Internment and the Homefront Experience in Australia, 1914-1920. University of Queensland Press, 1989.

Nagata, Yuriko. Unwanted Aliens : Japanese Internment in Australia. University of Queensland Press, 1996.

Neumann, Klaus. In the Interest of National Security : Civilian Internment in Australia during World War II. National Archives of Australia, 2006.

Resources on internment, including artifacts and images. http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/themes/1618/internment-during-world-war-ii-australia

Neumann, Klaus. "Fifth Columnists?German and Austrian Refugees in Australian Internment Camps". Lecture for the National Archives of Australia, April, 2002.

"Germans and Italians Interned in New Zealand." Victoria University of Wellington. nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2Pris-_N74723.html

"Enemy Aliens in New Zealand." Victoria University of Wellington. nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2Pris-_N72374.html

"Jewish Refugees Interned During the War." Holocaust Centre of New Zealand. http://www.holocaustcentre.org.nz/index.php/research/research-articles/85-jewish-refugees-interned-during-world-war-ii

"New Zealand and World War One Samoan Internees." freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/1916samoaninternees.html

Resource on how to find records of internees at The National Archives. www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/records/looking-for-person/internees.htm